Canola Oil Research

Research into canola oil’s health benefits

Scientific research is continuing to document how canola oil can help to improve heart health and manage problems like diabetes and obesity. In addition to coordinating industry-funded studies, such as those listed below, the Canola Council maintains the Canola Oil Research Directory, a comprehensive listing of the research published in scientific journals since canola was first developed.

Current and recent studies

Nutrigenetics, canola oil, and blood glucose levels: Does SCD1 genotype modulate a person’s response to canola oil?

Objective: Increased consumption of canola oil has been linked to various health benefits that includes improved blood lipids, reduced platelet aggregation, and increased glucose tolerance. However, not everyone experiences these benefits to the same extent. The overall objective of this project is to investigate if the health benefits associated with canola oil are influenced by a person’s genotype. For this initial proof-of-principle study, the research group will use samples previously collected during the “Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial II” (COMIT II) to examine if differences in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene influences blood glucose regulation following the consumption of canola oil.

Research Team: David Mutch (University of Guelph) – Project Leader; Peter Jones (University of Manitoba)

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola-enriched, Mediterranean-type weight loss diet in type 2 diabetes

Objective: To assess whether a Mediterranean-type weight-loss diet, enriched with canola oil, high in plant protein and low in carbohydrates will produce blood sugar control, reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and maximize weight loss, better than conventional higher carbohydrate diets in overweight diabetic patients.

Research Team: Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto) – Project Leader; Dr. Cyril Kendall (University of Toronto)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02245399

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola oil multi-centre intervention trial II (COMIT II)

Objective: To examine the health benefits of dietary canola oils on body composition, specifically on android fat, and weight management. COMIT II will also include analysis of fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) to elucidate the mechanisms by which canola oil may be modifying body composition. Measurement of endothelial function, inflammatory, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity biomarkers will be done to determine the positive health impact of the changes in body composition achieved through canola oil consumption.

Research Team: Dr. Peter Jones (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto); Dr. Benoit Lamarche (Laval University); Drs. Penny-Kris-Etherton and Sheila West (Penn State University); Dr. Todd Rideout (University at Buffalo); Dr. Carla Taylor (Canadian Centre for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02029833

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, Dow Agrosciences and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Publications:

  1. Bowen KJ, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Fleming JA, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Zahradka P, Hammad S, Sihag J, Chen X, Guay V, Maltais-Giguère J, Perera D, Wilson A, Juan SCS, Rempel J, Jones PJH. Diets enriched with conventional or high-oleic acid canola oils lower atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins compared to a diet with a western fatty acid profile in adults with central adiposity. J Nutr. 2019; 149(3): 471-478.
  2. Hammad SS, Eck P, Sihag J, Chen X, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Guay V, Maltais-Giguere J, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM, Bowen KJ, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Perera D, Wilson A, Castillo S, Zahradka P, Jones PJH. Common variants in lipid metabolism-related genes associate with fat mass changes in response to dietary monounsaturated fatty acids in adults with abdominal obesity. J Nutr. 2019; 149(10): 1749-1756.

Effect of canola oil on vascular and metabolic parameters in individuals with metabolic syndrome

Objective: Metabolic syndrome is an early stage of cardiovascular disease and is an appropriate target for dietary interventions. Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors (abdominal obesity, elevated serum triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, elevated fasting blood glucose) accompanied by low grade chronic inflammation, hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and reduced vascular function.

This study will investigate the effect of a 12-week intervention with canola oil versus the typical fat mixture in the Western diet on blood lipids, blood vessel function and metabolic syndrome parameters. Cardiovascular disease risk will be assessed based on the profile of lipids and other factors in the blood as well using specialized equipment for non-invasive monitoring of blood vessel function.

Research Team: Dr. Carla Taylor and Dr. Peter Zahradka (Canadian Centre for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01890330

Funded by the Canola Council of Canada, Alberta Canola and Alberta Innovates.

Canola oil multicentre intervention trial (COMIT)

Objective: To examine how the consumption of different dietary oil varieties affects a broad range of metabolic responses that are important in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study will examine the relationship between dietary oil consumption and arterial function, blood fat content, and blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Additionally, the efficiency of the body in converting fat from dietary oils into other specific fat compounds with know health benefits will be examined. Also, the correlation between psychosocial parameters and vascular function will be studied.

Research Team: Drs. Peter Jones (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto); Dr. Benoit Lamarche (Laval University); Drs. Penny-Kris-Etherton and Sheila West (Penn State University)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01351012

Publications:

  1. Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DA,  Lamarche B, Kris-Etherton PM,  West SG, Fleming JA, Liu X, McCrea CE, Jones PJ . Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). 2014; 15: 136.
  2. Jones P J, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Charest A, Baril-Gravel L, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, McCrea CE and Kris-Etherton PM. DHA-enriched high-oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100(1): 88-97.
  3. Baril-Gravel L, Labonte ME, Couture P, Vohl MC, Charest A, Guay V, Jenkins DA, Connelly PW, West S, Kris-Etherton PM, Jones PJH,  Fleming JA, Lamarche B. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015; 25(1): 52-59.
  4. Jones PJH, MacKay DS,  Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Liu X,  Fleming JA, Hantgan RR, Rudel LL. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans. Atherosclerosis 2015; 238(2): 231-238.
  5. Pu S, Eck P, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Liu X and Jones PJ (2016). Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition. Br J Nutr. 2016; 115(6): 10121023.
  6. Pu S, Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Segura-Carretero A,  Jones PJH. Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial. Vascul Pharmacol. 2016; 87(12): 60-65.
  7. Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Pu S, Sabra A, Quirantes-Pine R, Segura-Carretero A, Jones PJH. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates cardiovascular risk factors via a decline in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plasma levels. Lipids. 2016; 51(1): 75-83.
  8. Liu X, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Pu S, Couture P, Connelly PW, Jones PJ. Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(11): 2261-2268.
  9. Pu S, Khazanehei H, Jones PJ, Khafipour E. Interactions between obesity status and dietary intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils on human gut microbiome profiles in the canola oil multicenter intervention trial (COMIT). Front Microbiol. 2016; 7(12): 1612.
  10. Liu X, Garban J, Jones PJ, Vanden Heuvel J, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Couture P,  Pu S,  Fleming  JA,  West  SG. Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome: The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial  J Nutr. 2018; 148(5): 721-728.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of AAFC and the industry with funding from the Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola, Manitoba Canola Growers, Flax Council of Canada, and Dow AgroSciences.

Effect of canola oil as part of a low glycemic load diet on glucose control and coronary heart disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes  

Objective: To determine whether canola oil improves glycemic control in non-insulin dependent diabetes, as assessed by HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and to assess whether these outcomes relate to improvements in cardiovascular health, i.e. plasma lipids, measures of oxidative stress, FMD and inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein. If successful, this research will support scientific data on the utility of low glycemic load diets in improving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.  Positive results would also establish canola oil as a healthy dietary component and help to shape public opinion on its health benefits and influence food choices in Canada and abroad.

Research Team: Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto) – Project Leader; Dr. Cyril Kendall (University of Toronto); Dr. Sheila West (Penn State University)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01348568

Publications:

  1. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Faulkner D, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, Ireland C, Srichaikul K, Mirrahimi A, Chiavaroli L, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Patel D, Bashyam B, Vidgen E, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL, Coveney J, Josse RG, Leiter LA.  Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 (7): 1806-14.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of AAFC, Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Effects of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease

Objective: To rank various oils/fatty acid compositions with respect to post-prandial vascular activity. To establish whether canola has positive effects on blood vessel function by measuring true clinical endpoints such as arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation as well as the ankle-brachial index, the gold standard for human trials of this nature. As reduced blood flow contributes to cognitive impairment, the study will also investigate whether improvements in blood vessel function are also associated with improvements in cognitive function.

Research Team: Dr. Carla Taylor (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Drs. Peter Zahradka and Randy Guzman (St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01250275

Publications:

  1. Enns JE, Zahradka P, Guzman RP, Baldwin A, Foot B, Taylor CG. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD study. J Clin Trials. 2014; 6: 117-125.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada, Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola oil research directory

This directory provides links to nutritional research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals since canola was developed over several decades ago. All are human studies, with the exception of those related to cancer conditions. For these conditions, cell culture and animal studies were included because human cancer study data is limited to date.

All of the research in the directory utilized canola-quality oil, which by definition must be less than 2% erucic acid. In some regions, canola oil is still referred to as rapeseed oil.

Review articles

The Evidence for α-Linolenic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Benefits: Comaprison with Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid
Fleming JA and Kris-Etherton PMK. Adv Nutr 2014; 5:8635-8765.

Evidence of Health Benefits of Canola Oil
Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, Campbell L, Durance-Tod S, Berger A, and Jones PJH. Nut Rev 2013; 71(6):370-85.

Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors
Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones, PJH, Lipids; 2011, 46:209-28.

Review: Monounsaturated oils do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol
Treswell A, Choudhury N. Eur J Clin Nutr; 1998; 52(5):312-5. 

Cardiovascular health

Chemopreventative effects of dietary canola oil on colon cancer development
Bhatia E, Doddivenaka C, Zhang X, Bommareddy A, Krishnan P, Matthees DP, Dwivedi C. Nutr Canc 2011; 63:242

Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells
Ion G, Fazio K, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. Lipids Health Dis 2011; Jun 1: 10:90

Canola oil inhibits breast cancer cell growth in cultures and in vivo and acts synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs
Cho K, Mabasa L, Fowler AW, Walsh DM, Park CS. Lipids 2010; 45:777

Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) Tag mice offspring
Ion G, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. BMC Cancer 2010; 10:81

Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.
Wang  J, John EM, Horn-Ross PL, Ingles SA, Nutr Cancer 2008; 60:492

Omega-3 PUFA: Good or bad for prostate cancer?
Brouwer IA, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79:97

Dietary canola oil suppressed growth of implanted MDA-MB 231 human breast tumors in nude mice
Hardman WE. Nutr Canc 2007; 57:177

High dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA base adducts in white blood cells of female subjects
Nair J, Vaca CE, Velic I, Mutanen M, Valsta LM, Bartsch H. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent 1997; 6: 597

Determination of DNA adducts of malonaldehyde in humans: effects of dietary fatty acid composition
Fang JL, Vaca CE, Valsta LM, Mutanen M, Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:1035

Glycemic control

A very low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: A randomized trial
Tay J, Luscombe-March ND, Thompson CH, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, Yancy Jr WS, Brinkworth GD. Diabetes Care 2014; doi: 10.2337/dc14-0845

Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: A randomized controlled trial.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Faulkner D, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, Ireland C, Srichaikul K, Mirrahimi A, Chiavaroli L, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Patel D, Bashyam B, Vidgen E, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL, Coveney J, Josse RG, Leiter LA. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 (7):1806-14

The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance
Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TMS. AJCN 2010; 91:98

Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB, Prog Lipid Res 2009; 48:44

Effects of two high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy young women
Uusitupa M, Schwab U, Mäkimattila S, Karhapāā P, Sarkkinen E, Maliranta H, Agren J, Penttilā I. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59:1310

Cancer

Chemopreventative effects of dietary canola oil on colon cancer development
Bhatia E, Doddivenaka C, Zhang X, Bommareddy A, Krishnan P, Matthees DP, Dwivedi C. Nutr Canc 2011; 63:242

Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells
Ion G, Fazio K, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. Lipids Health Dis 2011; Jun 1: 10:90

Canola oil inhibits breast cancer cell growth in cultures and in vivo and acts synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs
Cho K, Mabasa L, Fowler AW, Walsh DM, Park CS. Lipids 2010; 45:777

Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) Tag mice offspring
Ion G, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. BMC Cancer 2010; 10:81

Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.
Wang  J, John EM, Horn-Ross PL, Ingles SA, Nutr Cancer 2008; 60:492

Omega-3 PUFA: Good or bad for prostate cancer?
Brouwer IA, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79:97

Dietary canola oil suppressed growth of implanted MDA-MB 231 human breast tumors in nude mice
Hardman WE. Nutr Canc 2007; 57:177

High dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA base adducts in white blood cells of female subjects
Nair J, Vaca CE, Velic I, Mutanen M, Valsta LM, Bartsch H. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent 1997; 6: 597

Determination of DNA adducts of malonaldehyde in humans: effects of dietary fatty acid composition
Fang JL, Vaca CE, Valsta LM, Mutanen M, Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:1035

Weight management

Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity
Liu X, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Pu S, Couture P, Connelly PW and Jones PJ. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Nov;24(11):2261-2268.

Interactions between obesity status and dietary intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils on human gut microbiome profiles in the canola oil multicenter intervention trial (COMIT)
Pu S, Khazanehei H, Jones PJ, Khafipour E. Front Microbiol. 2016 Oct 10;7:1612. eCollection

Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition
Pu, S., Eck, P., Jenkins, D.J., Connelly, P.W., Lamarche, B., Kris-Etherton, P.M., West, S.G., Liu, X. and Jones, P.J. Br J Nutr 2016; 115(6): 1012-1023.

Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial
Austel, A., Ranke, C., Wagner, M., Görge, Ellrott, T. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015; 69, 878-884

Modulation of plasma -acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans
Jones, P.J.H., Lin, L., Gillingham, L.G., Yang, H., Omar, J.M.,  J Lipid Res 2014; 55:2655-2664.

Effect of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome
Baxheinrich A, Stratmann B, Lee-Barkey YH, Tschoepe D, Wahrburg U, Br J Nutr 2012; 108(4):682-91

Effect of fat saturation on satiety, hormone release and food intake
Maljaars J, Romeyn EA, Haddeman E, Peters HPF, Masclee AAM. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(4):1019-1024

Other health conditions

Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Nigam P, Bhatt S, Misra A, Chadha DS, Vaidya M, Dasgupta J, Pasha QM. Diabetes Technol Ther 2014;  16(4):255-61

Meal triacylglycerol profile modulates postprandial absorption of carotenoids in humans
Goltz SR, Campbell WW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Ferruzzi, MG. Mol Nutr Food Res 2012; 56(6):866

Growth of infants fed formula rich in canola oil (low erucic acid rapeseed oil)
Rzehak P, Koletzko S, Koletzko B, Sausenthaler S, Reinrardt D, Grübl A, Bauer CP, Krämer U, Bollrath C, vonBerg A, Berdel D, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. Clin Nutr 2011; 30:339-345

Omega-3 fatty acid rich diet prevents diabetic renal disease
Garman JH, Mulroney S, Manigrasso M, Flynn E, Maric C. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009; 296:F306

Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention
Warensjö E, Risérus U, Gustafsson IB, Mohsen R, Cederholm T, Vessby B. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18:683

Postprandial cytokine concentrations and meal composition in obese and lean women
Manning PJ, Sutherland WH, McGrath MM, de Jong SA, Walker RJ, Williams MJ. Obesity 2008; 16:2046

Comparison of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oils, meat, and fish in raising platelet eicosapentaenoic acid levels in humans
Li D, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Lipids 1999; 34:s309

Effects of supplemental dietary arginine, canola oil, and trace elements on cellular immune function in critically injured patients
Mendez C, Jurkovich GJ, Wener MH, Shock 1996; 6:7

Linolenic acid in rapeseed oil partly compensates for the effect of fish restriction on plasma long chain n-3 fatty acids
Valsta L, Salminen I, Aro A, Mutanen M, Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50:229

Dietary patterns

Modeled replacement of traditional soybean and canola oil with high-oleic varieties increased monounsaturated fatty acid and reduces both saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the US adult population.
Raatz SK, Conrad Z, Jahns L, Belury MA, Picklo MJ. AM J Clin Nutr 2018: 108(3):594-602

Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome : a randomized SYSDIET sub-study
Brader L, Uusitupa M, Dragsted LO, Hermansen K. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014; 68(1):57-63

Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome – a randomized study (SYSDIET)
Uusitupa M, Hermansen K, Svolainen MJ, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Brader L, Mortensen LS, Cloetens, L, Johansson-Persson A, Onning G, Landin-Olsson M, Herzig KH, Hukkanen J, Rosqvist F, Iggmas D, Paananen J, Pulkki KJ, Siloaho M, Dragsted L, Barri T, Overvad K, Bach Knudsen KE, Hedemann MS, Arner P, Dahlman I, Borge GI, Baardseth P, Ulven SM, Gunnarsdottir I, Jónsdóttir S, Thorsdottir I, Orešič M, Poutanene KS, Risérus U, Akesson B.  J Intern Med 2013; 274(1), 52-66

A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease
Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS Arch Intern Med 2009; 167:659

Towards health-promoting and environmentally friendly regional diets – a Nordic example
Bere E, Brug J. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12:91

Dietary modeling shows that the substitution of canola oil for fats commonly used in the United States would increase compliance with dietary recommendations for fatty acids
Johnson GH, Keast DR, Kris-Etherton PM. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107:1726

Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk
Psota TL, Gebauer SK, Kris-Etherton PM. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98S:3i

The Mediterranean diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases
de Logeril M, Salen P. Pub Health Nutr 2006; 9:118

The Mediterranean diet: science and practice
Willett WC. Public Health Nutr 2006; 9:105

Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Wolk A, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69:890

Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids & mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial
Dolecek TA. PSEBM 1992; 200:177

Consumption of olive oil, butter, and  vegetable oils & coronary heart disease risk factors
Trevisan M, Krough V, Freudenheim J, Blake A, Muti P, Panico S, Farinaro M, Menotti A, Ricci G. JAMA 1990; 263:688