Canola Oil Research

Research into canola oil’s health benefits

Scientific research is continuing to document how canola oil can help to improve heart health and manage problems like diabetes and obesity. In addition to coordinating industry-funded studies, such as those listed below, the Canola Council maintains the Canola Oil Research Directory, a comprehensive listing of the research published in scientific journals since canola was first developed.

Current and recent studies

Nutrigenetics, canola oil, and blood glucose levels: Does SCD1 genotype modulate a person’s response to canola oil?

Objective: Increased consumption of canola oil has been linked to various health benefits that includes improved blood lipids, reduced platelet aggregation, and increased glucose tolerance. However, not everyone experiences these benefits to the same extent. The overall objective of this project is to investigate if the health benefits associated with canola oil are influenced by a person’s genotype. For this initial proof-of-principle study, the research group will use samples previously collected during the “Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial II” (COMIT II) to examine if differences in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1) gene influences blood glucose regulation following the consumption of canola oil.

Research Team: David Mutch (University of Guelph) – Project Leader; Peter Jones (University of Manitoba)

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola-enriched, Mediterranean-type weight loss diet in type 2 diabetes

Objective: To assess whether a Mediterranean-type weight-loss diet, enriched with canola oil, high in plant protein and low in carbohydrates will produce blood sugar control, reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and maximize weight loss, better than conventional higher carbohydrate diets in overweight diabetic patients.

Research Team: Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto) – Project Leader; Dr. Cyril Kendall (University of Toronto)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02245399

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola oil multi-centre intervention trial II (COMIT II)

Objective: To examine the health benefits of dietary canola oils on body composition, specifically on android fat, and weight management. COMIT II will also include analysis of fatty acid ethanolamides (FAEs) to elucidate the mechanisms by which canola oil may be modifying body composition. Measurement of endothelial function, inflammatory, adiposity, and insulin sensitivity biomarkers will be done to determine the positive health impact of the changes in body composition achieved through canola oil consumption.

Research Team: Dr. Peter Jones (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto); Dr. Benoit Lamarche (Laval University); Drs. Penny-Kris-Etherton and Sheila West (Penn State University); Dr. Todd Rideout (University at Buffalo); Dr. Carla Taylor (Canadian Centre for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02029833

This study was funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Canola Council of Canada, Dow Agrosciences and SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Publications:

  1. Bowen KJ, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Fleming JA, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Zahradka P, Hammad S, Sihag J, Chen X, Guay V, Maltais-Giguère J, Perera D, Wilson A, Juan SCS, Rempel J, Jones PJH. Diets enriched with conventional or high-oleic acid canola oils lower atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins compared to a diet with a western fatty acid profile in adults with central adiposity. J Nutr. 2019; 149(3): 471-478.
  2. Hammad SS, Eck P, Sihag J, Chen X, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Guay V, Maltais-Giguere J, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM, Bowen KJ, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Perera D, Wilson A, Castillo S, Zahradka P, Jones PJH. Common variants in lipid metabolism-related genes associate with fat mass changes in response to dietary monounsaturated fatty acids in adults with abdominal obesity. J Nutr. 2019; 149(10): 1749-1756.

Effect of canola oil on vascular and metabolic parameters in individuals with metabolic syndrome

Objective: Metabolic syndrome is an early stage of cardiovascular disease and is an appropriate target for dietary interventions. Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors (abdominal obesity, elevated serum triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, elevated fasting blood glucose) accompanied by low grade chronic inflammation, hepatic steatosis (fatty liver) and reduced vascular function.

This study will investigate the effect of a 12-week intervention with canola oil versus the typical fat mixture in the Western diet on blood lipids, blood vessel function and metabolic syndrome parameters. Cardiovascular disease risk will be assessed based on the profile of lipids and other factors in the blood as well using specialized equipment for non-invasive monitoring of blood vessel function.

Research Team: Dr. Carla Taylor and Dr. Peter Zahradka (Canadian Centre for Agri-food Research in Health and Medicine)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01890330

Funded by the Canola Council of Canada, Alberta Canola and Alberta Innovates.

Canola oil multicentre intervention trial (COMIT)

Objective: To examine how the consumption of different dietary oil varieties affects a broad range of metabolic responses that are important in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study will examine the relationship between dietary oil consumption and arterial function, blood fat content, and blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Additionally, the efficiency of the body in converting fat from dietary oils into other specific fat compounds with know health benefits will be examined. Also, the correlation between psychosocial parameters and vascular function will be studied.

Research Team: Drs. Peter Jones (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto); Dr. Benoit Lamarche (Laval University); Drs. Penny-Kris-Etherton and Sheila West (Penn State University)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01351012

Publications:

  1. Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DA,  Lamarche B, Kris-Etherton PM,  West SG, Fleming JA, Liu X, McCrea CE, Jones PJ . Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). 2014; 15: 136.
  2. Jones P J, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Charest A, Baril-Gravel L, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, McCrea CE and Kris-Etherton PM. DHA-enriched high-oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014; 100(1): 88-97.
  3. Baril-Gravel L, Labonte ME, Couture P, Vohl MC, Charest A, Guay V, Jenkins DA, Connelly PW, West S, Kris-Etherton PM, Jones PJH,  Fleming JA, Lamarche B. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015; 25(1): 52-59.
  4. Jones PJH, MacKay DS,  Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Liu X,  Fleming JA, Hantgan RR, Rudel LL. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans. Atherosclerosis 2015; 238(2): 231-238.
  5. Pu S, Eck P, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Liu X and Jones PJ (2016). Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition. Br J Nutr. 2016; 115(6): 10121023.
  6. Pu S, Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Segura-Carretero A,  Jones PJH. Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial. Vascul Pharmacol. 2016; 87(12): 60-65.
  7. Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Pu S, Sabra A, Quirantes-Pine R, Segura-Carretero A, Jones PJH. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates cardiovascular risk factors via a decline in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plasma levels. Lipids. 2016; 51(1): 75-83.
  8. Liu X, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Pu S, Couture P, Connelly PW, Jones PJ. Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(11): 2261-2268.
  9. Pu S, Khazanehei H, Jones PJ, Khafipour E. Interactions between obesity status and dietary intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils on human gut microbiome profiles in the canola oil multicenter intervention trial (COMIT). Front Microbiol. 2016; 7(12): 1612.
  10. Liu X, Garban J, Jones PJ, Vanden Heuvel J, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Couture P,  Pu S,  Fleming  JA,  West  SG. Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome: The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial  J Nutr. 2018; 148(5): 721-728.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of AAFC and the industry with funding from the Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola, Manitoba Canola Growers, Flax Council of Canada, and Dow AgroSciences.

Effect of canola oil as part of a low glycemic load diet on glucose control and coronary heart disease risk factors in type 2 diabetes  

Objective: To determine whether canola oil improves glycemic control in non-insulin dependent diabetes, as assessed by HbA1c and fasting blood glucose, and to assess whether these outcomes relate to improvements in cardiovascular health, i.e. plasma lipids, measures of oxidative stress, FMD and inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein. If successful, this research will support scientific data on the utility of low glycemic load diets in improving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes.  Positive results would also establish canola oil as a healthy dietary component and help to shape public opinion on its health benefits and influence food choices in Canada and abroad.

Research Team: Dr. David Jenkins (University of Toronto) – Project Leader; Dr. Cyril Kendall (University of Toronto); Dr. Sheila West (Penn State University)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01348568

Publications:

  1. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Faulkner D, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, Ireland C, Srichaikul K, Mirrahimi A, Chiavaroli L, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Patel D, Bashyam B, Vidgen E, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL, Coveney J, Josse RG, Leiter LA.  Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 (7): 1806-14.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of AAFC, Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Effects of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease

Objective: To rank various oils/fatty acid compositions with respect to post-prandial vascular activity. To establish whether canola has positive effects on blood vessel function by measuring true clinical endpoints such as arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation as well as the ankle-brachial index, the gold standard for human trials of this nature. As reduced blood flow contributes to cognitive impairment, the study will also investigate whether improvements in blood vessel function are also associated with improvements in cognitive function.

Research Team: Dr. Carla Taylor (University of Manitoba) – Project Leader; Drs. Peter Zahradka and Randy Guzman (St. Boniface General Hospital Research Centre)

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01250275

Publications:

  1. Enns JE, Zahradka P, Guzman RP, Baldwin A, Foot B, Taylor CG. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD study. J Clin Trials. 2014; 6: 117-125.

Funded through the Canola/Flax Canadian Agri-Science Cluster, a joint initiative of Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada, Canola Council of Canada, SaskCanola, Alberta Canola and Manitoba Canola Growers.

Canola oil research directory

This directory provides links to nutritional research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals since canola was developed over several decades ago. All are human studies, with the exception of those related to cancer conditions. For these conditions, cell culture and animal studies were included because human cancer study data is limited to date.

All of the research in the directory utilized canola-quality oil, which by definition must be less than 2% erucic acid. In some regions, canola oil is still referred to as rapeseed oil.

Review articles

The effects of canola oil on cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis with dose-response analysis of controlled clinical trials
Amiri M, Raeisi-Dehkordi H, Sarrafzadegan N, Forbes SC, Salehi-Abargouei A. Nutr Metab Cardiovas. 2020; 30(2):2133-2145.

Effects of Canola Oil Consumption on Lipid Profile: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.
Ghobadi S, Hassanzadeh-Rostami Z, Mohammadian F, Zare M and Faghih S. JACN 2019; 38(2): 185-196.

Effects of oils and solid fats on blood lipids: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
Schwingshackl L, Brogensberger B, Bencic A, Knuppel S, Boeing H and Hoffman G. J Lipid Res. 2018; 59:1771-1782.

The Evidence for α-Linolenic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease Benefits: Comaprison with Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid
Fleming JA and Kris-Etherton PMK. Adv Nutr 2014; 5:8635-8765.

Evidence of Health Benefits of Canola Oil
Lin L, Allemekinders H, Dansby A, Campbell L, Durance-Tod S, Berger A, and Jones PJH. Nut Rev 2013; 71(6):370-85.

Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids are protective against metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors
Gillingham LG, Harris-Janz S, Jones, PJH, Lipids; 2011, 46:209-28.

Review: Monounsaturated oils do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol
Treswell A, Choudhury N. Eur J Clin Nutr; 1998; 52(5):312-5. 

Cardiovascular health

Common variants in lipid metabolism-related genes associate with fat mass changes in response to dietary monounsaturated fatty acids in adults with abdominal obesity
Hammad SS, Eck P, Sihag J, Chen X, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Guay V, Maltais-Giguere J, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM, Bowen KJ, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Perera D, Wilson A, Castillo S, Zahradka P, Jones PJH. J Nutr. 2019; 149(10): 1749-1756.

Diets enriched with conventional or high-oleic acid canola oils lower atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins compared to a diet with a western fatty acid profile in adults with central adiposity
Bowen KJ, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Fleming JA, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Jenkins DJA, Taylor CG, Zahradka P, Hammad S, Sihag J, Chen X, Guay V, Maltais-Giguère J, Perera D, Wilson A, Juan SCS, Rempel J and Jones PJH. J Nutr. 2019; 149(3): 471-478.

Diets low in saturated fat with different unsaturated fatty acid profiles similarly increase serum-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages in a population with or at risk for metabolic syndrome: The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial.
Liu X, Garban J, Jones PJ, Vanden Heuvel J, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Couture P, Pu S, Fleming JA and West SG. J Nutr. 2018; 148(5): 721-728.

How canola and sunflower oils affect lipid profile and anthropometric parameters of participants with dyslipidemia.
Saedi S, Noroozi, M, Khosrotabar N, Mazandarani S and Ghadrdoost B. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017;31:5.

Dietary high oleic canola oil supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid attenuates plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels in participants with cardiovascular disease risk: A randomized control trial
Pu S, Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Segura-Carretero A, and Jones PJH. Vascul Pharmacol 2016; 87:60-65.

Rice bran oil and canola oil improve blood lipids compared to sunflower oil in women with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, single blind controlled trial
Salar A, Faghih S, Pishdad G-R. J Clin Lipidol March-April 2016; 10(2): 299-305.

Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates cardiovascular risk factors via a decline in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plasma levels.
Rodriguez-Perez C, Ramprasath VR, Pu S, Sabra A, Quirantes-Pine R, Segura-Carretero A and Jones PJH. Lipids 2016; 51(1): 75-83.

Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.
Baril-Gravel L, Labonte ME, Couture P, Vohl MC, Charest A, Guay V, Jenkins DA, Connelly PW, West S, Kris-Etherton, PM., Jones, P.J., Fleming, J.A., and Lamarche, B. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2015; 25(1): 52-59.

Dietary rapeseed/canola oil supplementation reduces serum lipids and liver enzymes and alters postprandial inflammatory responses in adipose tissue compared to olive-oil supplementation in obese men.
Kruse M, von Loeffelholz C, Hoffman D, Pohlmann A, Seltmann A-C, Osterhoff M, Hornemann S, Pivovarova O, Rohn S, Jahreis G, Pfeiffer, A. Mol Nutr Food Res 2015 59(3): 507-19.

High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.
Jones PJH, MacKay DS, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJ, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, Hantgan RR and Rudel LL.  Atherosclerosis 2015; 238(2): 231-238.

Effect of a low-fat diet enriched either with rapeseed oil or sunflower oil on plasma lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Results of a pilot study.
Negele L, Schneider B, Ristl R, Stulnig TM, Willfort-Ehringer A, Helk O and Widhalm K. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015; 69:337-343.

Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of canola oil on blood vessel function in peripheral arterial disease: rationale and design of the Canola-PAD study
Enns JE, Zahradka P, Guzman RP, Baldwin A, Foot B and Taylor CG. J Clin Trials. 2014; 6: 117-125.

Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT).
Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DA, Lamarche B, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Fleming JA, Liu X, McCrea CE and Jones PJH. Trials 2014; 15: 136.

DHA-enriched high–oleic acid canola oil improves lipid profile and lowers predicted cardiovascular disease risk in the canola oil multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Jones PJH, Senanayake VK, Pu S, Jenkins DJA, Connelly PW, Lamarche B, Couture P, Charest A, Baril-Gravel L, West SG, Liu X, Fleming JA, McCrea C and Kris-Etherton PM. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100 (1):88-97.

High-oleic rapeseed (canola) and flaxseed oils modulate serum lipids and inflammatory biomarkers in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.
Gillingham LG, Gustafson JA, Han SY, Jassal DS and Jones PJH. Br J Nutr 2011; 105(3):417-27.

Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipidaemia: a randomized controlled study.
Iggman D, Gustafsson IB, Berglund L, Vessby B, Marckmann P and Riserus U. J Intern Med 2011; 270:356-364.

Effects of dietary cold-pressed turnip rapeseed oil and butter on serum lipids, oxidized LDL and arterial elasticity in men with metabolic syndrome.
Palomaki A, Pohjantahti-Maaroos H, Wallenius M, Kankkunen P, Aro H, Husgafvel S, Pihlava JM and Oksanen K. Lipids Health Dis 2010 Dec 1;9:137-144.

Elevated plasma fibrinogen caused by inadequate α-linolenic acid intake can be reduced by replacing fat with canola-type rapeseed oil.
Seppänen-Laakso T, Laakso I, Lehtimäki T, Rontu R, Moilanen E, Solakivi T, Seppo L, Vanhanen H, Kiviranta K and Hiltunen R. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2010 Jul;83(1):45-54.

Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Risk of Nonfatal Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Campos H, Baylin A and Willett WC. Circulation 2008; 118:339-345.

Home use of vegetable oils, markers of systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction among women.
Esmaillzadeh A and Azadbakht L Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:913-921.

Canola oil decreases cholesterol and improves endothelial function in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease – a pilot study.
Stricker H, Duchini F, Facchini M and Mombelli G. Artery Research 2008; 2:67-73.

Characteristics of the diet patterns tested in the optimal macronutrient intake trial to prevent heart disease (OmniHeart): options for a heart-healthy diet.
Swain JF, McCarron PB, Hamilton EF, Sacks FM and Appel LJ. J Am Diet Assoc 2008; 108:257-265.

Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with a-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers.
Egert S, Somoza V, Kannenberg F, Fobker M, Krome K, Erbersdobler HF and Wahrburg U. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61:314-325.

Postprandial effect of n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on apolipoprotein B–containing lipoproteins and vascular reactivity in type 2 diabetes.
Hilpert, KF, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Simpson NM and Alaupovic P. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 369-376.

Phytosterols mixed with medium-chain triglycerides and high-oleic canola oil decrease plasma lipids in overweight men.
Rudkowska I, Roynette CE, Nakhasi MDK and Jones PJH. Metab Clin Exp 2006; 55:391-395.

Palm and partially hydrogenated soybean oils adversely alter lipoprotein profiles compared with soybean and canola oils in moderately hyperlipidemic subjets.
Vega-Lopez, S, Ausman LM, Jalbert SM, Erkkila AT and Lichtenstein AH. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84:54-62.

Cholesterol lowering effects of nuts compared with a canola oil enriched cereal of similar fat composition.
Chisholm A, McAuley K, Mann J, Williams S and Skeaff M. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2005; 15:284.

Acute effects of monounsaturated fatty acids with and without omega-3 fatty acids on vascular reactivity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.
West SG, Hecker KD, Mustad VA, Nicholson S, Schoemer SL, Wagner P, Hinderliter AL, Ulbrecht J, Ruey P and Kris-Etherton PM.  Diabetologia 2005; 48:113.

Dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids similarly increase plasma apoliprotein A-IV concentrations in healthy men and women.
Kratz M, Wahrburg U, Eckardstein A, Ezeh B, Assmann G and Kronenberg F.  J Nutr 2003; 133:1821.

Long-term monounsaturated fatty acid diets reduce platelet aggregation in healthy young subjects.
Smith R, Kelly C, Fielding B, Hauton D, Sliva K, Nydahl M, Miller G and Williams C. Br J Nutr 2003; 90:597.

Effect of a rapeseed oil substituting diet on serum lipids & lipoproteins in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.
Gulesserian T and Widhalm K. J Am Coll Nutr 2002; 21:103.

The effect of vegetable oil-based cheese on serum total and lipoprotein lipids.
Karvonen HM, Tapola NS, Uusitupa MI and Sarkkinen ES. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56:1094.

Dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids similarly affect LDL size in healthy men and women.
Kratz M, Gülbahçe E, Von Eckardstein A, Cullen P, Cignarella A and Assmann G. J Nutr 2002; 132:715.

Effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein.
Kratz M, Cullen P, Kannenberg F, Kassner A, Fobker M and Abuja PM. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002; 56:72.

Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations & on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility.
Nielsen NS, Perdersen A, Sandstorm B, Marckmann P and Hoy C. B J Nutr 2002; 87:489.

Effects of diets containing olive oil, sunflower oil, or rapeseed oil on the hemostatic system.
Junker R, Kratz M, Neufeld M, Erren M, Nofer JR and Schulte H. Thromb Haemost 2001; 85:280.

A diet containing rapeseed oil-based fats does not increase lipid peroxidation in humans when compared to a diet rich in saturated fatty acids.
Sodergren E, Gustafsson IB, Basu S, Nourooz-Zadeh J, Nalsen C, Turpeinen A, Berglund L and Vessby B. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001; 55:922.

An olive oil-rich diet results in higher concentrations of LDL cholesterol and a higher number of LDL subfraction particles than rapeseed oil & sunflower oil diets.
Pedersen A, Baumstark M, Marckmann P, Gylling H and Sandstrom B. J Lipid Res 2000; 41:1901.

Dietary fats and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in healthy humans.
Baudet MF and Jacotot B. Ann Nutr Metab 1998; 32:352.

Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults.
Becker CC, Lund P, Holmer G, Jensen H and Sandstrom B. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999; 53:535.

Mediterranean diet, traditional risk factors, and the rate of cardiovascular complications after myocardial infarction.
de Lorgeril M, Salen P, Martin J-L, Monjaud I, Delaye J and Mamelle N. Circulation 1999; 99:779.

Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men.
Li D, Sinclair A, Wilson A, Nakkote S, Kelly F, Abedin L, Mann N and Turner A. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69:872.

Oil blends containing hydrogenated or interesterified fats: differential effects on plasma lipids.
Noakes M and Clifton P. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68:242.

Fat-modified diets influence serum concentrations of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Sarkkinen ES, Uusitupa MI, Gylling H and Miettinen TA. Metabolism 1998; 47:744.

Varying dietary fat type of reduced-fat diets has little effect on the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Schwab US, Vogel S, Lammi-Keefe CJ, Ordovas JM, Schaefer EJ, Li ZG, Ausman LM, Gualtieri L, Goldin BR, Furr HC and Lichtenstein AH. J Nutr 1998; 128:1703.

Effect of psyllium in hypercholesterolemia at two monounsaturated fatty acid intakes.
Jenkins D, Wolever T, Vidgen E, Kendall C, Ransom T, Mehling C, Mueller S, Cunnane S, O’Connell N, Stechell K, Lau H, Teitel J, Garvey M, Fulgoni V, Connelly P, Patten R and Corey P. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1524.

Effect on serum lipids of monounsaturated oil and margarine in the diet of an Antarctic expedition.
Matheson B, Walker K, Taylor D, Pterkin R, Lugg D and O’Dea K. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63:933.

Comparison of effects of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids on serum level of lipoprotein(a) in patients with coronary artery disease.
Herrmann W, Biermann J and Kostner GM. Am J Cardiol 1995; 76:459.

Polyunsaturated fatty-acids result in greater cholesterol-lowering and less triacylglycerol elevation than do monounsaturated fatty-acids in a dose-response comparison in a multiracial study-group.
Howard BV, Hannah JS, Heiser CC, Jablonski KA, Paidi MC, Alarif L, Robbins DC and Howard WJ. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62:392.

The effect of supplemental dietary fat on plasma cholesterol levels in lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients.
McKenney JM, Proctor JD, Wright JT Jr, Kolinski RJ, Elswick RK Jr and Coaker JS. Pharmacotherapy 1995; 15: 565.

Similar effects of rapeseed oil (canola oil) and olive oil in a lipid-lowering diet for patients with hyperlipoprotienemia.
Nydahl M, Gustafsson I, Ohrvall M and Vessby B. J Amer Coll Nutr 1995; 14:643.

Both dietary 18:2 and 16:0 may be required to improve the serum LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio in normocholesterolemic men.
Sundram K, Hayes K and Siru O. Nutritional Biochemistry 1995; 179.

Plasma and lipoprotein lipid peroxidation in humans on sunflower & rapeseed oil diets.
Turpeinen A, Alfthan G, Valsta L, Hietanen E, Salonen J, Schunk H, Nyyssönen K and Mutanen M. Lipids 1995; 30:485.

The effects on serum lipoprotein levels of two monounsaturated fat rich diets differing in their linolenic and alpha-linolenic acid contents.
Valsta L, Jauhiainen M, Aro A, Salminen I and Mutanen M. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 1995; 5:129.

Comparison of the effects of two diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids differing in their linolenic/alpha-linolenic acid ratio on platelet aggregation.
Freese R, Mutanen M, Valstra, LM and Salminen I. Thromb Haemost 1994; 71:73.

A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.
Gustafsson IB, Vessby B, Ohrvall M and Nydahl M. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59(3): 667-674.

Effect of dietary fat selection on plasma cholesterol synthesis in older, moderately hypercholesterolemic humans.
Jones P, Lichtenstein A, Schaefer E and Namchuk G. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14:542.

Serum concentration and metabolism of cholesterol during rapeseed oil and squalene feeding.
Miettinen TA and Vanhanen H. Amer J Clin Nutr 1994; 59:356.

Similar effects of rapeseed oil (canola oil) and olive oil in a lipid-lowering diet for patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.
Miettinen TA and Vanhanen H. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59:356.

Similar serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in healthy subjects on diets enriched with rapeseed and with sunflower oil.
Nydahl M, Gustafsson I, Ohrvall M and Vessby B. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48:128.

Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and its ratio to linoleic acid on platelet and plasma fatty acids and thrombogenesis.
Chan JK, McDonald BE and Gerrard JM. Lipids 1993; 28:811.

Fatty Acid Composition and the Oxidation of Low-Density Lipoproteins.
Corboy J Sutherland, WH and Ball MJ. Biochem Med Metab Biol 1993; 49:25-35

Effects of canola, corn, and olive oils on fasting and postprandial plasma lipoproteins in humans as part of a national cholesterol education program Step 2 diet.
Lichtenstein A, Ausman L, Carrasco W, Jenner J, Gualtieri L, Goldin B, Ordovas J and Schaefer E. Arterioscler Thromb 1993; 13:1533.

Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: Effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.
Seppänen-Laakso T, Vanhanen H, Laakso I, Kohtamäki H and Viikari J. Ann Nutr Metab 1993; 37:161.

Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids enhance cholesterol efflux from human fibroblasts. Relation to fluidity, phospholipid fatty acid composition, overall composition, and size of HDL3.
Sola R, Motta C, Maille M, Bargallo M T, Boisnier C, Richard JL and Jacotot B. Arterioscler Thromb 13(7):958-63.

Rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets enhance platelet in vitro aggregation and thromboxane production in healthy men when compared with milk fat or habitual diets.
Mutanen M, Freese R, Valsta L, Ahola I and Ahlström A. Thromb Haemost 1992; 67:352.

Replacement of butter on bread by rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil-containing margarine: Effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.
Seppänen-Laakso T, Vanhanen H, Kohtamäki H and Viikari J. Br J Nutr 1992; 68:639.

Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: Effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.
Seppänen-Laakso T, Vanhanen H, Laakso I, Kohtamaki H and Viikari J. Ann Nutr Metab 1992; 3:161.

Double blind comparison of plasma lipids in healthy subjects eating potato crisps fried in palm olein or canola oil.
Truswell AS, Choudhury N and Roberts DCK. Nutr Res 1992; 12(Supplement 1): S43-52.

Effects of a monounsaturated rapeseed oil and a polyunsaturated sunflower oil diet on lipoprotein levels in humans.
Valsta L, Jauhiainen M, Aro A, Katan M and Mutanen M. Arterioscler Thromb 1992; 12:50.

Effects of canola oil on serum lipids in humans.
Bierenbaum ML, Reichstein RP, Watkins TR, Maginnis WP and Geller M. J Am Coll Nutr 1991; 10:228.

Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is as effective as oleic acid and linolenic acid in lowering blood cholesterol in normolipidemic men.
Chan JK, Bruce VM and McDonald BE. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53:1230.

Effects of diets high in saturated fatty-acids, canola oil, or safflower oil on platelet-function, thromboxane-B2 formation, and fatty-acid composition of platelet phospholipids.
Kwon JS, Snook JT, Wardlaw GM and Hwang DH. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 54:351.

Serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in healthy men on diets enriched in either canola oil or safflower oil.
Wardlaw G, Snook J, Lin M-C, Puangco M, Kwon J. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:104.

Accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids of subjects fed canola oil.
Bruce VM and McDonald BE. Lipids 1990; 25:598.

Comparison of the effects of canola oil and sunflower oil on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and on in vivo thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin production in healthy young men.
McDonald B, Gerrard J, Bruce V and Corner E. Am J Clin Nutr 1989; 50:1382.

Dietary fats and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in healthy humans.
Baudet MF, Jacotot B. Ann Nutr Metab 1988; 32:352.

Influence of long-term diet modification on platelet function and composition in Moselle farmers.
Renaud S, Godsey F, Dumont E, Thevenon C, Ortchanian F and Martin JL. Am J Clin Nutr 1986; 43:136.

Glycemic control

A very low carbohydrate, low saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: A randomized trial
Tay J, Luscombe-March ND, Thompson CH, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Wittert GA, Yancy Jr WS, Brinkworth GD. Diabetes Care 2014; doi: 10.2337/dc14-0845

Effect of lowering the glycemic load with canola oil on glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors: A randomized controlled trial.
Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Vuksan V, Faulkner D, Augustin LS, Mitchell S, Ireland C, Srichaikul K, Mirrahimi A, Chiavaroli L, Blanco Mejia S, Nishi S, Sahye-Pudaruth S, Patel D, Bashyam B, Vidgen E, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL, Coveney J, Josse RG, Leiter LA. Diabetes Care 2014; 37 (7):1806-14

The hypoglycemic effect of fat and protein is not attenuated by insulin resistance
Lan-Pidhainy X, Wolever TMS. AJCN 2010; 91:98

Dietary fats and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Risérus U, Willett WC, Hu FB, Prog Lipid Res 2009; 48:44

Effects of two high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions on glucose and lipid metabolism in healthy young women
Uusitupa M, Schwab U, Mäkimattila S, Karhapāā P, Sarkkinen E, Maliranta H, Agren J, Penttilā I. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59:1310

Cancer

Chemopreventative effects of dietary canola oil on colon cancer development
Bhatia E, Doddivenaka C, Zhang X, Bommareddy A, Krishnan P, Matthees DP, Dwivedi C. Nutr Canc 2011; 63:242

Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells
Ion G, Fazio K, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. Lipids Health Dis 2011; Jun 1: 10:90

Canola oil inhibits breast cancer cell growth in cultures and in vivo and acts synergistically with chemotherapeutic drugs
Cho K, Mabasa L, Fowler AW, Walsh DM, Park CS. Lipids 2010; 45:777

Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) Tag mice offspring
Ion G, Akinsete JA, Hardman WE. BMC Cancer 2010; 10:81

Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.
Wang  J, John EM, Horn-Ross PL, Ingles SA, Nutr Cancer 2008; 60:492

Omega-3 PUFA: Good or bad for prostate cancer?
Brouwer IA, Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2008; 79:97

Dietary canola oil suppressed growth of implanted MDA-MB 231 human breast tumors in nude mice
Hardman WE. Nutr Canc 2007; 57:177

High dietary omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA base adducts in white blood cells of female subjects
Nair J, Vaca CE, Velic I, Mutanen M, Valsta LM, Bartsch H. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent 1997; 6: 597

Determination of DNA adducts of malonaldehyde in humans: effects of dietary fatty acid composition
Fang JL, Vaca CE, Valsta LM, Mutanen M, Carcinogenesis 1996; 17:1035

Weight management

Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity
Liu X, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG, Lamarche B, Jenkins DJ, Fleming JA, McCrea CE, Pu S, Couture P, Connelly PW and Jones PJ. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Nov;24(11):2261-2268.

Interactions between obesity status and dietary intake of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils on human gut microbiome profiles in the canola oil multicenter intervention trial (COMIT)
Pu S, Khazanehei H, Jones PJ, Khafipour E. Front Microbiol. 2016 Oct 10;7:1612. eCollection

Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition
Pu, S., Eck, P., Jenkins, D.J., Connelly, P.W., Lamarche, B., Kris-Etherton, P.M., West, S.G., Liu, X. and Jones, P.J. Br J Nutr 2016; 115(6): 1012-1023.

Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial
Austel, A., Ranke, C., Wagner, M., Görge, Ellrott, T. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015; 69, 878-884

Modulation of plasma -acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans
Jones, P.J.H., Lin, L., Gillingham, L.G., Yang, H., Omar, J.M.,  J Lipid Res 2014; 55:2655-2664.

Effect of a rapeseed oil-enriched hypoenergetic diet with a high content of α-linolenic acid on body weight and cardiovascular risk profile in patients with the metabolic syndrome
Baxheinrich A, Stratmann B, Lee-Barkey YH, Tschoepe D, Wahrburg U, Br J Nutr 2012; 108(4):682-91

Effect of fat saturation on satiety, hormone release and food intake
Maljaars J, Romeyn EA, Haddeman E, Peters HPF, Masclee AAM. Am J Clin Nutr 2009; 89(4):1019-1024

Other health conditions

Effect of a 6-month intervention with cooking oils containing a high concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (olive and canola oils) compared with control oil in male Asian Indians with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Nigam P, Bhatt S, Misra A, Chadha DS, Vaidya M, Dasgupta J, Pasha QM. Diabetes Technol Ther 2014;  16(4):255-61

Meal triacylglycerol profile modulates postprandial absorption of carotenoids in humans
Goltz SR, Campbell WW, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Failla ML, Ferruzzi, MG. Mol Nutr Food Res 2012; 56(6):866

Growth of infants fed formula rich in canola oil (low erucic acid rapeseed oil)
Rzehak P, Koletzko S, Koletzko B, Sausenthaler S, Reinrardt D, Grübl A, Bauer CP, Krämer U, Bollrath C, vonBerg A, Berdel D, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. Clin Nutr 2011; 30:339-345

Omega-3 fatty acid rich diet prevents diabetic renal disease
Garman JH, Mulroney S, Manigrasso M, Flynn E, Maric C. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2009; 296:F306

Effects of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on estimated desaturase activities during a controlled dietary intervention
Warensjö E, Risérus U, Gustafsson IB, Mohsen R, Cederholm T, Vessby B. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18:683

Postprandial cytokine concentrations and meal composition in obese and lean women
Manning PJ, Sutherland WH, McGrath MM, de Jong SA, Walker RJ, Williams MJ. Obesity 2008; 16:2046

Comparison of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oils, meat, and fish in raising platelet eicosapentaenoic acid levels in humans
Li D, Mann NJ, Sinclair AJ. Lipids 1999; 34:s309

Effects of supplemental dietary arginine, canola oil, and trace elements on cellular immune function in critically injured patients
Mendez C, Jurkovich GJ, Wener MH, Shock 1996; 6:7

Linolenic acid in rapeseed oil partly compensates for the effect of fish restriction on plasma long chain n-3 fatty acids
Valsta L, Salminen I, Aro A, Mutanen M, Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50:229

Dietary patterns

Modeled replacement of traditional soybean and canola oil with high-oleic varieties increased monounsaturated fatty acid and reduces both saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the US adult population.
Raatz SK, Conrad Z, Jahns L, Belury MA, Picklo MJ. AM J Clin Nutr 2018: 108(3):594-602

Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on ambulatory blood pressure in metabolic syndrome : a randomized SYSDIET sub-study
Brader L, Uusitupa M, Dragsted LO, Hermansen K. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014; 68(1):57-63

Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome – a randomized study (SYSDIET)
Uusitupa M, Hermansen K, Svolainen MJ, Schwab U, Kolehmainen M, Brader L, Mortensen LS, Cloetens, L, Johansson-Persson A, Onning G, Landin-Olsson M, Herzig KH, Hukkanen J, Rosqvist F, Iggmas D, Paananen J, Pulkki KJ, Siloaho M, Dragsted L, Barri T, Overvad K, Bach Knudsen KE, Hedemann MS, Arner P, Dahlman I, Borge GI, Baardseth P, Ulven SM, Gunnarsdottir I, Jónsdóttir S, Thorsdottir I, Orešič M, Poutanene KS, Risérus U, Akesson B.  J Intern Med 2013; 274(1), 52-66

A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease
Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS Arch Intern Med 2009; 167:659

Towards health-promoting and environmentally friendly regional diets – a Nordic example
Bere E, Brug J. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12:91

Dietary modeling shows that the substitution of canola oil for fats commonly used in the United States would increase compliance with dietary recommendations for fatty acids
Johnson GH, Keast DR, Kris-Etherton PM. J Am Diet Assoc 2007; 107:1726

Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk
Psota TL, Gebauer SK, Kris-Etherton PM. Am J Cardiol 2006; 98S:3i

The Mediterranean diet for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases
de Logeril M, Salen P. Pub Health Nutr 2006; 9:118

The Mediterranean diet: science and practice
Willett WC. Public Health Nutr 2006; 9:105

Dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid and risk of fatal ischemic heart disease among women
Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Wolk A, Colditz GA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69:890

Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids & mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial
Dolecek TA. PSEBM 1992; 200:177

Consumption of olive oil, butter, and  vegetable oils & coronary heart disease risk factors
Trevisan M, Krough V, Freudenheim J, Blake A, Muti P, Panico S, Farinaro M, Menotti A, Ricci G. JAMA 1990; 263:688