CANOLA QUIZ – Slow emergence

Four questions related to slow emergence of canola and the risks this can present.

1. Canola seeded into cool soils takes longer to germinate and emerge than canola seeded into warm soils. Research from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Beaverlodge, Alberta, measured the pace of canola seed germination based on soil temperature. In soil of 8°C, it took about five days for all seeds to germinate. In soil of 2°C, what percentage of seeds had germinated after five days?

Flea beetles tend to cause more damage in slow-growing canola crops. John Gavloski, entomologist for Manitoba Agriculture, says canola will have lower risk of flea beetle damage if conditions are conducive to rapid growth. Gavloski says canola will be at lower risk of flea beetle damage if it goes from seeding to the four-leaf stage in ______________. (Fill in the blank.)

3. Two of the major cutworm species of the Canadian Prairies tend to prefer dry soil conditions. Which are they? (Choose two.)
4. The Canola Encyclopedia chapter on seedling diseases includes a short section on "Influence of environment". According to this section, the greatest seedling disease losses in canola come from __________ and from _____________. (Choose two from the following list to fill in these blanks.)