Browse the Canola Meal Feeding Guide by chapter:
Canola meal is fed to all types of poultry throughout the world. The meal provides an excellent amino acid profile and is an alternative to, or complement to other protein ingredients such as soybean meal. Canola meal provides excellent value in diets where the greatest emphasis in formulation is placed on amino acid balance. Canola meal can also be a cost effective alternative to other proteins in high energy broiler diets. Care must be taken to formulate diets on a digestible amino acid basis to ensure performance is optimal when canola meal is included in diets for poultry.
In general, poultry animals will maintain appropriate feed intake levels when given diets high in canola meal that are formulated for available amino acids. However, studies in raising poultry suggest that canola meal might need to be restricted during the starter period to 20% for broilers and turkeys, and 10% for more exotic ducks, geese and quail. Concentrations of 30% to 40% of the diet are readily tolerated at later stages of growth. Oryschak and Beltranena (2013) and Rogiewicz et al. (2015) demonstrated that proper diet formulation can allow for canola meal to be included at 20% of the diet with no effect on feed intake in the diet of laying hens. Feed intake was maintained for broilers fed up to 20% canola meal from days 1 to 35 of life (Naseem et al., 2006), and broiler growers can be given diets with up to 30% canola meal (Newkirk and Classen, 2002; Ramesh et al., 2006).
Canola meal has a lower energy value for poultry compared with the most common vegetable protein source, soybean meal. In certain diets, such as for broilers, the greater emphasis placed on the value of energy may limit the inclusion of canola meal. Egg layer diets and early-phase, high-protein turkey diets based on leastcost formulation include canola meal in the ration at a higher price. Recent research shown in Table 1 suggests that the energy value of canola meal for broilers in the grower/finisher stage is 200 kcal/kg greater than previously published.
The use of dietary enzymes is common in poultry feeds, especially those containing barley and wheat, and these have been demonstrated to improve carbohydrate digestibility. Canola meal contains a significant portion of cell wall components that are undigested by poultry. A number of researchers have fed dietary enzymes in an attempt to increase carbohydrate digestibility in canola meal (Kocher et al., 2000; Mandal et al., 2005; Meng et al., 2005; Meng and Slominski, 2005; Meng et al., 2006; Ravindran et al., 1999; Ramesh et al., 2006; Simbaya et al., 1996; Slominski and Campbell, 1990). Most studies examining the inclusion of cellulase or non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) degrading enzymes to improve canola meal digestibility have demonstrated limited benefits. Meng and Slominski (2005) examined the effects of adding a multi-enzyme complex (xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, mannanase and galactonase) to broiler diets. The enzyme combination increased total tract NSP digestibility of canola meal, but no improvements were observed in other nutrient digestibility values or animal performance. Jia et al. (2012) fed broiler diets containing canola meal and a multi-carbohydrase enzyme to determine their effect on AMEn values, and found a 6% increase in AMEn. Gallardo et al. (2017) calculated an 8% improvement in the energy value of canola meal. However, increases in AMEn of only 2.5% and 2.9% with the use of multi-carbohydrase enzymes were witnessed by Rad-Spice (2017) and Jayaraman et al. (2016). Although the data is not completely conclusive, moderate enhancement of canola meal digestion may occur, and the enzymes may likewise improve the digestibility of other dietary ingredients.
|12% moisture basis||Dry matter basis||References||Group||Order|
|1,789||2,032||Rahmani et al., 2017||Broilers||1|
|1,777||2,019||Adewole et al., 2017||Broilers||1|
|1,810||2,057||Jia et al, 2012||Broilers||1|
|1,851||2,217||Gorski et al., 2017||Broilers||1|
|1,822||2,071||Gallardo et al., 2017||Broilers||1|
|1,983||2,254||Chen et al., 2015||Broilers||1|
|2,144||2,437||Jayaraman et al, 2016||Broilers||1|
|1,936||2,200||Jia et al., 2012||Laying hens||2|
|1,766||2,007||Jia et al., 2012||Turkeys||3|
|1,886||2,143||Kozlowski et al., 2018||Turkeys||4|
|1,885||2,142||Wickramasuriya et al, 2015||Ducks||5|
|1,852||2,105||Mandal et al., 2005||Quail||6|
The key to feeding high inclusion levels of canola meal in diets for poultry is to balance the diets on an available amino acid basis. Extensive research has been conducted in recent times to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids from Canola meal. Results for broilers are provided in Table 2.
|Aspartate + Asparagine||78.59||3.35||Dispensable||2|
|Glutamate + Glutamine||87.84||3.39||Dispensable||2|
1Adewole et al., 2017, Chen et al., 2015, Gallardo et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2012, Kong
and Adeola, 2013
2Average of 24 values
Fewer values are available for other classes of poultry (Table 3). It may be possible to use the SID values from broilers for species where data have not been determined. Huang et al. (2006) found that there were no differences in apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids between broiler chicks, laying hens and adult roosters , which is not the case for all feed ingredients (Adedokun et al, 2009; Huang et al., 2006).
|Aspartate + Asparagine||76||80||75.8||Dispensable||2|
|Glutamate + Glutamine||87||84||87.4||Dispensable||2|
1Saki et al., 2017b; Huang et al., 2006
2Koslowski et al., 2011; Koslowski et al., 2018; Huang et al., 2006
3Kong and Adeola, 2013
The complete mineral and vitamin profile from canola meal is provided in Chapter 2. These values can be used as guidelines in formulations.
Canola meal is notably a rich source of phosphorus, which is a critical nutrient for all classes of poultry. In the past, only the nonphytate portion of the phosphorus in canola meal was assumed to be available, which is approximately 35% of the total phosphorus of the meal. However, using the ileal digestibility technique, Mutucumarana et al. (2014) calculated that 47% of the phosphorus in canola meal was digestible, and that a portion of the phytate phosphorus was digested by birds. Phytase enzymes may be added to the feed, but results with phytase in poultry have largely been disappointing (Slominski, 2011; Kong and Adeola, 2011). In contrast, phytase has been shown to be effective in improving phosphorus bioavailability in rapeseed meal varieties (Czerwiński et al., 2012).
It is common practice to formulate diets based on cation-anion balance. Canola meal is high in sulfur, which can interfere with calcium absorption. Supplementing the diet with extra calcium helps to a certain extent, but care is advised, as too much dietary calcium can depress feed intake. Adding potassium bicarbonate to diets is a better alternative, as this corrects the problem at its source. Canola meal contains less potassium (1.2%) than soybean meal (1.9%), so the electrolyte balance is lower in a diet based on canola meal than a soybean meal based diet.
Unlike rapeseed meal, canola meal does not need to be restricted on the basis of the glucosinolate contribution to the diet. The very low levels of glucosinolates that are present in Canadian canola meal have eliminated concerns for this anti-nutrient in practical feeding situations.
Recent improvements in understanding requirements of broilers have led to the development of routine formulation procedures that have permitted greater amounts of canola meal to be included in today’s diets for broilers. As noted, it is now common practice to formulate diets based on cation-anion balance. Feed intake in broilers has been correlated with the cation-anion balance of the diet based on some pioneering investigations into feeding canola meal to poultry (Summers and Bedford, 1994).
In addition, formulating diets on the basis of SID has resulted in weight gains that are nearly identical to those found with other protein ingredients, particularly during the grower period. Recent research suggests that up to 30% canola meal can be used in broiler diets. Gorski et al (2017) provided starter diets (1-21 days of age) to broilers that contained 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% canola meal. Weight gains were reduced with the 30 and 40% inclusion rates, due to lower feed intakes for these diets. Grower diets, provided from 21 to 37 days of age contained 0, 10, 20 or 30% canola meal. There were no differences in average daily gain or feed intake between diets during the growing period.
Gopinger et al. (2014) formulated diets with 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% canola meal, which was provided to the birds from 7 to 35 days of age. Growth rates were greater with the 10, 20 and 30% canola meal diets than with the soybean meal control, but declined with the 40% canola meal diet. There was no decline in growth rates from 15 to 35 days of age with the highest level of canola meal in the diet. Looking at these two studies, it would appear that canola meal inclusion levels of up to 20% for 0-7 days, 30% from 7-14 days and up to 40% beyond are possible.
In similar fashion, Ariyibi (2019) fed diets to broilers that contained 6 incremental levels of canola meal ranging from 0 to 15% from 1 through 7 days of age, 0 to 18% from 7 through 14%, 0 to 25% from 14 through 21 days of age, and 0 to 35% from 21 through 28 days of age. Increasing levels of canola meal had no effect on growth performance. These results are in agreement with older studies (Newkirk and Classen, 2002; Naseem et al., 2006) and demonstrate the versatility of canola meal for broiler chickens.
Canola meal is a commonly fed and economically effective feed ingredient in commercial egg layer diets. As with broiler diet formulation, SID amino acids must be considered. Early research, where diets were formulated on a crude protein basis, showed a reduction in egg weight when canola meal was substituted for soybean meal. Diets formulation on a crude protein basis resulted in insufficient lysine content in the canola meal diet (Kaminska, 2003). Previous published research by Novak et al. (2004) supported the hypothesis that insufficient lysine can affect egg weight. These researchers increased lysine intake from 860 mg/d to 959 mg/d and observed an increase in egg weight from 59.0 g to 60.2 grams.
Traditionally, including canola meal in laying-hen diets was limited to a maximum of 10%, due to a potential association between liver hemorrhage mortality and feeding older varieties of canola meal (Butler et al., 1982; Campbell and Slominski, 1991). The authors suggested that this could have been the result of residual glucosinolate content found in these early varieties of canola (Campbell and Slominski, 1991). Plant breeding has steadily reduced the level of glucosinolates to the point where they are currently less than one-third of those found in the first canola varieties that were fed in these studies. More recent studies with laying hens have demonstrated excellent performance with high levels of canola meal inclusion in the diet.
Oryschak and Beltranena (2013) demonstrated that proper diet formulation can allow for canola meal to be included at 20% of the diet with no negative effects on egg production, egg quality or egg fatty acid content. As Figure 1 shows, egg weights and laying percentage were maintained for the duration of the 36 week-long study. There were also no differences in liver hemorrhage in the hens, and there was no detectible fishy odor in the eggs. Rogiewicz et al. (2015) sililarly demonstrated excellent performance of hens fed 15–20% canola meal. Gorski (2015) provided hens from 33 to 49 weeks of age with diets containing 0 (soybean meal control) 8, 16, or 24% canola meal. They found no differences between treatments in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, or change in weight of the hens over the course of the 16-week study.
In yet one more study (Savary et al., 2017), hens were given diets containing soybean meal as the major protein source, or 10 or 20% canola meal. The experiment was analyzed for 4 feeding periods: 30 to 41, 42 to 49, 50 to 61 and 62 to 78 weeks of age. There were no differences in egg production, feed efficiency, or mortality for any of the feeding phases. Furthermore, the researchers noted that there were no differences in egg quality or hen weights. Based on these recent findings, canola meal can be fed effectively at elevated levels in laying hen diets without negatively affecting egg production, egg weight, egg quality or fatty acid content as long as the diets are formulated on digestible amino acid content. Laying hens have repeatedly demonstrated an ability to handle high levels of canola meal.
There is limited new research on the use of canola meal in broiler breeders, likely because much of the results from laying hens are applicable to these birds. The high-protein and high-fibre content of canola meal makes it an ideal feedstuff to manage weight gain in broiler breeder birds. Older research showed that canola meal has no negative effects on egg fertility or hatchability of leghorn breeders (Kiiskinen, 1989; Nasser et al., 1985). A more recent study by Ahmadi et al. (2007) evaluated the effects of adding 0%, 10%, 20% or 30% rapeseed meal to the diet of broiler breeders, and it is unclear as to what the glucosinolate content of the diets was. However, they concluded that rapeseed meal can be used effectively in broiler breeder diets without affecting production, egg weight or chick quality. Use of canola meal for broiler breeders can be justified due to the extensive information available for laying hens and other poultry.
Canola meal is an excellent protein source for growing turkeys. It is common commercial practice to feed high dietary concentrations of canola meal to growing and finishing turkeys.
It has long been known that the key to using canola meal for turkeys successfully is to insure the diets are balanced for amino acids. Early on, Waibel (1992) demonstrated that when canola meal was added at 20% of the diet without maintaining equal energy and essential amino acid levels, growth and feed conversion efficiency were decreased. However, when extra fat was added and amino acid levels were kept constant, performance was equal to or superior to the control diet. As with other species, it is important that diets be formulated on a digestible amino acid basis.
More recently, Kozlowski et al. (2018) verified that starter and grower diets with 20% canola meal resulted in growth rates that were similar to those obtained with soybean meal. Feed to gain was found to be slightly higher in the starter phase for the canola meal diet (1.43 for canola meal as compared to 1.36 for soybean meal) but this could be reduced to 1.37 with the inclusion of multicarbohydrase enzymes. There were no differences in average daily gain, feed intake or feed efficiency due to treatment over the length of the 8 week-long study. Similarly, Noll et al. (2017) provided starter turkeys with diets containing 0 (soybean meal control), 8, 16 or 24% canola meal. The researchers found no differences in any performance parameters measured. A follow-up shorter study, conducted during the very sensitive first 3 weeks of life noted that up to 24% canola meal could be provided to starter turkeys (Noll et al., 2017).
Commercially, canola meal is often included in turkey diets at levels beyond the 20% level. In this case, it is important to ensure the dietary electrolyte balance of the final diet is in the appropriate range. The dietary electrolyte balance of canola meal (Na + K–Cl) is approximately 307mEq/kg. However, canola meal contains a significant amount of sulfur, and this should also be considered: (NaK) – (Cl + S) = 103 mEq/kg) (Khajali and Slominski, 2012).
Ducks and geese represent the third largest source of poultry meat, and these birds are also prized for their eggs and feathers. Canola meal is commonly fed to ducks and geese, and with no reported issues resulting from the use of the meal.
Wickramasuriya et al. (2015) determined that the first limiting amino acid for ducks is methionine, and found that canola meal represented a well-balanced amino acid profile for these birds. In addition, the higher available phosphorus as compared to soybean meal is a desirable attribute. Bernadet et al. (2009) studied the effects of rapeseed meal on the growth of mule ducks and noted that inclusion level would be limiting due to glucosinolates, which were not measured in their study. They did, however, determine that concentrations of 7% rapeseed meal in the starter period, and 21% in the grow finish period allowed for excellent growth. This suggests that at least these amounts of canola meal can be included in diets for ducks.
Geese have a greater digestive capability than other types of poultry, and appear to digest canola meal efficiently (Jamroz, et al., 1992). The amino acid digestibility of canola meal in ducks is shown in Table 3. Canola meal and soybean meal have similar amino acid digestibility in ducks (Kluth and Rodehutscord, 2006).
Quail are raised for eggs as well as meat. Saki et al. (2017b) evaluated canola meal for quail hens at 10, 20 or 30% of the diet from 46 to 56 weeks of age. Production declined at the 20 and 30% level of inclusion, but there were no differences in performance at the 10% inclusion rate. The authors noted that this would allow 1/3 of the soybean meal to be replaced for canola meal. In an earlier study (Sarıçiçek et al., 2005), researchers replaced 0, 25 or 50% of the soybean meal in the diet for quail hens (0, 9.25 or 18.5% of the total diet as canola meal). In this 126 day-long study, there were no differences in hen body weight change, feed efficiency, % lay or egg mass.
|Item||Soybean meal||Low canola meal||High canola meal||Group||Order|
|Percent of diet protein from canola||0||25||50||Canola Percentage||1|
|Canola in diet, %||0||12.15||24.3||Canola Percentage||1|
|Weight gain, g||150||144||132||No Enzymes||2|
|Feed intake||761||751||740||No Enzymes||2|
|Weight gain, g||143||142||147||Added Enzymes||3|
|Feed intake||738||753||755||Added Enzymes||3|
1Sarıçiçek et al, 2005
Sarıçiçek et al. (2005) also compared canola meal to soybean meal in a quail growth study (Table 4). Again, 0, 25 or 50% of the protein from soybean meal was replaced with protein from canola meal, resulting in diets with 0, 12.15 and 24.3% total canola meal. In addition, multi-carbohydrase and phytase enzymes were tested for their ability to improve digestibility. Growth rates with the 50% canola meal were lower than the control when no enzymes were added to the diet. When the enzymes treatments were supplied, there were no differences in growth, feed intake or feed to gain for all three treatments.
Canola meal is an excellent source of protein for poultry, but the energy content of solvent-extracted canola meal can limit its use in the diets of rapidly growing poultry. Due to the remaining oil content, canola expeller meal contains more energy than solventextracted meal, and it can be included as the sole source of protein in the diet without additional fat. A number of recent studies have been conducted to determine the AMEn value of expeller canola meal for growing broilers (Table 5). As can be seen from the table, the oil content of expeller meal can vary with source, and the energy value increases with oil content. Expeller meal provides a high level of the essential fatty acid, linoleic acid, thus exceeding the requirements of the birds without the need for supplemental fat from other sources.
Oryschak and Beltranena (2013) fed 20% expeller-pressed canola meal to Brown Nick hens, and demonstrated excellent egg production, egg quality and egg fatty acid content. Canola expeller meal can also be fed as an effective protein source for turkeys. Palander et al. (2004) studied the effects of feeding canola expeller meal in growing turkeys on protein digestibility, and found digestibility coefficients similar to solvent-extracted meal.
|wdt_ID||Reference||Oil, % of DM||AMEn, 12% moisture basis||AMEn DM basis|
|1||Woyengo et al., 2010||12.00||2,370||2,694|
|2||Kong and Adeola, 2016||13.90||2,376||2,697|
|3||Bryan et al., 2017||10.10||2,053||2,333|
|4||Bryan et al., 2017||14.20||2,294||2,607|
|5||Toghyani et al, 2014||8.30||1,987||2,258|
It should be borne in mind that the oil content of expeller meal is due to the efficiency of the type of press used, so the product should be tested and the energy value adjusted accordingly. Each percentage of fat provides approximately 80 kcal of added energy.
|Aspartate + Asparagine||77.80||2.91||Dispensable||2|
|Glutamate + Glutamine||84.13||6.66||Dispensable||2|
1Woyengo et al., 2010; Toghyani et al, 2014; Toghyani et al., 2015; Bryan et al., 2017
2N = 16
As table 6 illustrates, the digestibility of the amino acids in expeller canola meal is similar to values obtained with solvent extracted meal, provided excess heating is not applied. Bryan et al (2017) demonstrated that subjecting the meal to high heat can result in decreasing the digestibility of the amino acids.
Canola seed is rich in oil, and can be used as an energy source. Toghyani et al (2017) analyzed six samples of seed, representing the range in composition. AMEn for growing broilers ranged from 4,501 to 4,791 and averaged 4,554 kcal/kg (dry matter basis). The variation could largely be explained by the variability in oil content, which ranged from 40.8 to 47.9% of the seed. This recently determined energy value for the seed was similar to the previously determined value (Barekatain et al., 2015) of 4,691 kcal/kg of dry matter.
Canola oil is routinely fed as an energy source to broiler chickens. In addition to its energy value, it is an excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids. Kanakri et al (2018) fed broiler chickens diets containing approximately 3% added fat from beef tallow, flaxseed oil, corn oil, canola oil, macadamia oil or coconut oil. While there were no
differences in growth performance between the different types of fat provided, the tissue fatty acid compositions of the birds reflected the varying fat sources provided. Muscle tissues from birds given canola oil had the lowest concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and were second only to birds fed flax oil in omega 3 fatty acid content of muscle.
The ratio of linoleic acid (omega 6) to linolenic acid (omega 3) is approximately 2:1, as compared to 7:1 for soybean oil and 50:1 for corn oil. This is of importance, because a common desaturase enzyme is used to elongate both fatty acids. Birds have the ability to elongate linolenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Excess linoleic acid limits the conversion (Cachaldora et al., 2008).
With the hens’ ability to synthesize DHA from linolenic acid, eggs commonly provide an important and economical dietary supply of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the basal diet is the key to the success of producing DHA enriched eggs when the diets are supplemented with linolenic acid from sources such as flax oil or chia oil, and canola based diets have been shown to be superior to diets where major ingredients contribute competing linoleic acid (Gonzalez-Esquerra and Leeson, 2001; Goldberg et al., 2016). In addition, Rowghani et al. (2007) showed that adding between 3 to 5% canola oil to corn-soybean meal diets resulted in over 8 times greater concentrations of DHA in eggs than diets without oil addition.
|wdt_ID||Animal Diet Type||Inclusion Level||Reason|
|1||Chick starter||20%||Intakes may be reduced with higher inclusion|
|2||Broiler grower||30%||High performance results reported at 30% inclusion|
|3||Broiler finisher||40%||High performance results reported at 40% inclusion|
|4||Layers||24%||NO data available beyond 24%|
|5||Broiler breeders||30%||Limited data available|
|6||Turkey starter||24%||No data available beyond 24%|
|7||Turkeys Grower||24%||No data available beyond 24%|
|8||Ducks and Geese starter||7%||Limited data available|
|9||Ducks and Geese grower||21%||No data available beyond 21%|
|10||Quail||18.50%||Limited data available|
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