Canola meal can be a major component of a nutritionally balanced diet for all types of poultry. In addition to its high protein content and excellent amino acid profile, canola meal is a great alternative or complement to other protein ingredients. Recent academic studies have demonstrated that canola meal can provide consistent value for poultry producers. Some of the value canola meal provides lies in these attributes:
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Are you currently limiting inclusion of canola meal in poultry diets due to palatability and feed intake concerns? Perceived limitations regarding palatability of canola meal are being laid to rest by research scientists and industry professionals. The glucosinolate content in Canadian canola meal is currently so low (3.7µmol/g) that any negative effects would only be observed if canola meal was included at levels far surpassing the protein requirements of the birds. As well, brown-shelled egg layers can enjoy the full benefits of canola meal as the incidence of fishy taint in eggs has disappeared with the currently available genetic strains in North America. Studies have shown that when you formulate your diets on a digestible amino acid basis, you can readily up your inclusion levels to test the full benefits of canola meal’s powerful amino acid profile.
|TABLE 1. PRACTICAL INCLUSION LEVELS OF CANOLA MEAL IN POULTRY DIETS|
|Animal Diet Type||Inclusion Level||Reason|
|Chick starter||20%||Intakes may be reduced with higher inclusion|
|Broiler grower||30%||High performance results reported at 30% inclusion|
|Broiler finisher||40%||High performance results reported at 40% inclusion|
|Layers||24%||No data available beyond 24%|
|Broiler breeders||30%||Limited data available|
|Turkey starter||24%||No data available beyond 24%|
|Turkey grower||24%||No data available beyond 24%|
|Ducks and Geese starter||7%||Limited data available|
|Ducks and Geese grower||21%||No data available beyond 21%|
|Quail||18.5%||Limited data available|
As Table 2 shows, an extensive amount of research has been conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy value (AMEn) of canola meal for poultry, with the bulk of the research being conducted with broiler chickens.
|TABLE 2. APPARENT METABOLIZABLE ENERGY VALUES FOR CANOLA MEAL FOR POULTRY (12% MOISTURE BASIS)|
|Solvent extracted canola meal
||Expeller canola meal
1Rahmani et al., 2017; Rad-Spice, 2017; Adewole et al., 2017; Jia et al, 2012; Gorski et al., 2017; Gallardo et al., 2017; Chen et al., 2015; Jayaraman et al., 2016
2Jia et al., 2012
3Jia et al., 2012; Kozlowski et al., 2018
4Wickramasuriya et al, 2015
5Mandal et al., 2005
6Woyengo et al., 2010; Kong and Adeola, 2016; Bryan et al., 2017; Bryan et al., 2017 Toghyani et al, 2014
7Extrapolated from broiler results
In addition, a large amount of research effort has been invested in determining the ileal digestibility of amino acids for broiler chickens, laying hens, turkeys and even ducks. As an example, Table 3 provides values from many studies with broilers. Determined digestibility values are generally greater than assumed in the past, resulting in ease in formulation when canola meal is used.
|TABLE 3. AMINO ACID CONTENT AND STANDARDIZED ILEAL DIGESTIBILITY OF AMINO ACIDS IN CANOLA MEAL1, 2|
|Amino Acid||% of Meal (Assuming 36%
|% of Crude Protein||Standardized digestibility, %|
|Aspartate + Asparagine||2.49||6.92||78.6|
|Glutamate + Glutamine||6.22||17.28||87.8|
|Methionine + Cysteine||1.33||3.69||82.6|
1 Adewole et al., 2017; Almeida et al, 2014; Berrocoso et al., 2015; Flavero et al., 2014; le et al., 2017; Maison and Stein, 2014; Mejicanos and Nyachoti, 2018; Sanjayan et al., 2014; Trindade Neto et al., 2012
2 Average of 24 values
Recent studies have shown that canola meal can be effectively fed as the supplemental proteins source in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance, as long as the diets are formulated on a digestible amino acid basis.
Furthermore, the maximum inclusion level for canola meal increases with stage of growth. A recent study demonstrated broilers can readily tolerate up to 40% canola meal in the starter period with no loss in feed efficiency, but intakes are reduced when the meal is included in diets above 20% (Table 4), confirming previously conducted research.
|TABLE 4. CANOLA MEAL INCLUSION LEVELS IN BROILER STARTER DIETS1|
|Inclusion level||Average gain, g||Average intake, g||Gain/feed|
1Gorski et al., 2017 (gains were statistically lower than control with 30 and 40% inclusion)
In contrast, canola meal was found to be well tolerated during the grower and finisher periods, with no declines in feed intake when compared to a control diet based on soybean meal (Table 5).
|TABLE 4. CANOLA MEAL INCLUSION LEVELS IN BROILER DIETS FROM 7 TO 35 DAYS OF AGE1|
|Inclusion level||Average gain, g||Average intake, g||Gain/feed|
1Gopinger et al., 2014 (numeric differences were not statiscally different)
Although the energy value of solvent-extracted canola meal is lower than some other vegetable proteins, such as soybean meal, this is offset by the lower cost per gram of key available amino acids and phosphorous, allowing nutritionists to consider greater dietary inclusions of canola meal in broiler diets. As always, care must be exercised to ensure that nutrient requirements of the bird are met, including available amino acids, energy and minerals. Often, fat is added to elevate the energy content of the diet, but expeller-pressed canola meal can also be used, as the fat content is naturally higher.
Canola meal is a commonly fed and economically effective feed ingredient in commercial egg layer diets. Because lower-energy diets are usual for layers, this means that canola meal can be used very effectively in diets for laying hens.
Feeding canola meal to laying hens supports peak production, with no loss in egg size. Because hens do not need as much protein in their diets as broilers, practical feeding levels of canola meal rarely exceed 20 percent of the diet. Problems once associated with canola meal, such as hemorrhagic liver disease or fishy taste, no longer are issues that reduce the use of canola meal, as Canadian canola meal contains, on average, 3.7µmol/g of glucosinolates, a level that is considered quite negligible.
Canola meal is an excellent source of protein for growing turkeys and is commonly included in grower and finisher diets throughout Western Canada. Because of the high methionine and cysteine content, which is desired for feathering, the sulfur levels of diets containing canola meal tend to be high. Nutritionists have had good success when diets are balanced for electrolytes.
Studies conducted in Minnesota (Noll, 2017) demonstrated that up to 24% canola meal can be included in turkey diets. Results in Table 6 show that 20% canola meal can be included in turkey diets, and the addition of multicarbohydrase enzymes is an option that can be applied to further enhance the energy value of the diet.
|TABLE 6. USE OF CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR TURKEYS1|
|Control||20% Canola Meal||20% Canola meal plus enzyme|
|Average daily gain, g||35.7||34.7||35.4|
|Feed intake, g/day||48.7||49.7||48.6|
|Average daily gain, g||103.4||99.0||102.2|
|Feed intake, g/day||190.0||187.6||182.6|
1Kozlowski et al., 2018
Want more information on canola meal and poultry? Check out some of the resources below:
July, 2019 M. Bhulyan and R.A. Swick
Dr. Jacquie Jacob, University of Kentucky
Bob Swick and Reza Barekatain
July 14, 2015