Canola Watch 2014 exam worth 6.5 CCA/CCSC credits

NOTE: This is the 2014 exam!!

The exam period is over, but we'll leave the exam up for anyone who wants to test their skills.

All answers can be found in the 2014 Canola Watch reports, which are in the "Archive" section at The answer key will be provided after you click "submit" at the bottom.

For questions or additional information on this exam, please contact Jay Whetter at 807-468-4006 or

Part ONE


The following 20 questions are from off-season Canola Watch articles, posted January-April and October-December 2014.
Crop sequence can be important when drawing crop rotation plans. For example, canola does not provide a very good bridge for soil mycorrhizal fungi, which provide a yield benefit for two crops in particular. Therefore growers may see better results by growing these crops ahead of canola instead of after canola in the rotation. What are the two crops?
2. Of these four macronutrients — nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sulphur — which is the only one actually recommended to be placed in the seed row with canola seed?
3. Growing varieties with genetic resistance to clubroot is an important part of clubroot management. When are growers advised to start using clubroot-resistant varieties?
4. Photography is becoming an important skill in agronomy, with crisp photos taken at various angles making remote diagnostics easier. In the recommended article, “How to use photos for agronomy,” what disease is originally misdiagnosed as blackleg?
5. Bertha armyworm can do a lot of damage in a short time, so you want to make sure counts are accurate. Complete this quote by Alberta Ag entomologist Scott Meers, talking about bertha management during a presentation at FarmTech 2014 in Edmonton: “If the action level is 20 per square metre and you find 17, _________________________.”
6. Scientific research in Western Canada has identified three factors that are known to increase the risk of canola yield loss in short rotations on individual fields. The first two are blackleg and clubroot. What is the third?
7. When cutting stems to check for blackleg, disease severity is scored from 0 (no disease) to 5 (dead). Blackleg severity scores of _______ or more in a resistant (R) variety is a good sign that resistance in that variety is no longer effective on blackleg races within that field.
8. A recent study, led by Christian Willenborg with the University of Saskatchewan, found that ___________ is the major weed associated with continuous canola rotations.
9. The 4 Rs of fertilizer management are the right source at the right rate, at the right time and in the right place. When discussing the right source for phosphate, Canola Watch says phosphate is phosphate and all inorganic forms are useful if adhering to the remaining Rs. The one exception is ________________, which is fairly insoluble under our conditions and would not provide plant available P.
10. In discussing the right rate for sulphur, __________ lb./ac. is suggested even if the composite soil test says overall supply is sufficient. A somewhat higher rate is recommended if soil tests indicate sulphur deficiency.
11. In discussing the right source for nitrogen, which of the following represents the key conclusion?
12. In the Canola Council of Canada’s strategic plan, what average yield gain does the CCC forecast can be achieved by 2025 through improvements in plant establishment, fertility management, integrated pest management and harvest management put together?
13. When looking at this graph demonstrating the economic return from nitrogen, what does it mean when the blue line showing the net return from nitrogen goes flat?

14. In assessing clubroot risk, what does Canola Watch say about soil pH?
15. When considering the mathematics of clubroot risk, if one in a million clubroot resting spores are capable of overcoming resistance, then in a highly-infested field there could be _______ spores per GRAM of soil that are capable of overcoming resistance.
16. Through the summer of 2014, PAMI researcher Joy Agnew blogged about her canola storage research project. Search for “BLOG: Canola bin watch” using the search function at What were her preliminary findings, as described in her August 22 entry?
17. Applying fertilizer in the fall can be effective, but considerations for product, placement and timing are necessary to preserve the investment. As Canola Watch reports, losses for fall applied nitrogen compared to a time-of-seeding application can be ________ in moist and warm conditions.
18. Canola spoiled in storage can harden to create bridges or grain walls inside bins. These create potentially dangerous situations for anyone trying to break these structures to empty the bin. Manitoba’s Safe Farms program suggests the following to stay safe while breaking bridges or walls:
19. The amount of nitrogen (N) made available to the crop through mineralization of organic matter will vary from year to year depending on environmental conditions and soil type, but around _______ pounds of N per percentage point of organic matter is a reasonable estimate.
20. Carryover seed can maintain its quality when stored in appropriate conditions. AAFC research has found that No.1 certified canola seed stored ____________ will maintain its minimum 90% germination for at least 20 months.


21. PART THREEThe following 33 questions are from the weekly in-season Canola Watch, posted from May to September:Quality of water put into the spray tank can influence glyphosate performance. What two hard water ions are particularly important to have at low levels?
22. Canola growers have four good economic reasons to “take the time and seed right.” The first three are (1) better return on seed investment, (2) reduced need for a second in-crop herbicide application, and (3) more leeway for insect and disease management. The fourth, as outlined in the article, is that a uniform crop with 7 to 10 plants per square foot will ____________.
23. When seeding in mid May, which of the following stand establishment factors can be ignored?
24. Wind trajectory maps can show where winds came from and where winds will blow. Forward trajectory wind maps used in Canola Watch can help to estimate the arrival of what?
25. How many growing degree days (base 0°C) are required before napus canola starts to flower?
26. Seeding can begin fairly soon after a burnoff. For annuals and winter annuals, glyphosate needs only ____ hours to get to the growing point.
27. Tank mixing top-dress fertilizer with a herbicide application is not a good option for a number of reasons. This is one of them:
28. According to Canola Watch, what is Step 4 in making the decision to spray for flea beetles?
29. As a contact herbicide, ____________ is recommended to be applied as medium to slightly coarse droplets (approximately 200 – 350 microns) and at water volumes of at least 10 gallons per acre to maintain efficacy.
30. The following is a recommendation for which herbicide? Use water volumes of 5-10 gallons/acre when water quality is good. Lower water volumes are recommended with hard water. Add ammonium sulphate to the water at 1% of total spray volume to reduce hard water antagonism.
31. Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) permits “unlabelled” tank mixes as long as products in the mix are registered for the target use and used according to their label instructions. In cases where information on the tank mix partner labels differs between them, the ______________ directions must be followed.
32. The seedling disease complex includes three primary pathogens — fusarium, pythium and rhizoctonia. Which statement below is accurate?
33. Cutworms can be one reason for missing plants early in the season. To scout, dig around bare patches and look for cutworms just below the soil surface. If cutworms are found and spraying is necessary, the preferred time to spray is when?
34. The Guide to Crop Protection says it’s too windy to spray herbicide if wind speed exceeds _______.
35. Air temperature inversions can cause spray to hang in the air and increase the risk of drift. Inversions tend to reach peak intensity and severity __________.
36. Reseeding canola rarely makes economic sense, unless the stand has fewer than 1-2 plants per square foot or weed competition is beyond control. New research from Saskatchewan found that the odds of success when reseeding canola are better if growers _________.
37. Canola needs a little bit of boron, and most Canadian Prairie soils have enough to meet this demand. If boron deficiency occurs, it is more likely in what type of soil?
38. In June 2014, the University of Alberta confirmed the presence of a different clubroot pathotype in the Edmonton region. Why was this significant?
39. The economic cost of hail damage depends on severity of the storm, obviously, but crop stage is also significant. Hail tends to have very little economic cost when the crop is at this stage:
40. Emergence of adult bertha armyworms is fairly predictable based on growing degree days. According to a Canola Watch “map of the week” in June, how many growing degree days (base 7°C) are needed to trigger emergence of bertha armyworm adults from pupae?
41. Of the fungicides registered as of July 2014 to manage sclerotinia stem rot in canola, how many fungicide groups are represented?
42. Canola crops side by side can have different risk factors, and often do not require the same crop management for nutrients, weeds, insects and disease. Crop rotation, fertilizer rates, plant population and crop stage are a few factors that can influence whether one crop needs a treatment while the other right beside may not. A Canola Watch article gives the example of __________, which is attracted to the earliest flowering fields in an area. Therefore these early fields may be at control thresholds while later fields never have enough of this pest to warrant a spray.
43. To protect bees and other pollinators, avoid spraying insecticide on flowering crops. If crops must be spraying during flowering, the best time to spray is:
44. Root diseases seemed to be more common than usual throughout the season in 2014. Brown girdling root rot (BGRR) came up often in diagnostic discussions, and while BGRR symptoms were detected on plants in various regions, this particular root disease tends to be more prevalent in which region?
45. The pre-harvest disease scouting video ( mentions one plant disease that will cause much higher yield loss when it infects the main stem below the crotch. To identify this disease, twist infected stem and look for shredding of stem material.
46. Part way through the pre-harvest disease scouting video ( one insect is mentioned as the likely cause for a specific type of pod damage. What is the insect mentioned?
47. Threshold tables for lygus suggest, for example, that if canola is $12 per bushel and spray costs $8 per acre, the threshold at the early pod stage is 5 lygus adults or late instar nymphs per 10 sweeps. New research is re-assessing this threshold. Rough estimates based on newer evaluation suggest that ___ adult or late-instar lygus bugs per 10 sweeps at pod stages would be needed to cause a 2 bu./ac. reduction in yield.
48. The swede midge epicentre in Western Canada is an area around Nipawin and Carrot River, Saskatchewan. In 2014, an infestation was confirmed around this Saskatchewan community, suggesting a significant expansion of the risk zone.
49. A 2013 straight combining trial at Indian Head, Saskatchewan came to a conclusion similar to previous Canola Council of Canada research, solidifying what important observation about harvest timing?
50. Thin stands increase the green seed risk because plants have more branches, and when the main stem is ready to swath, these side branches often have a lot of immature seed. A stand of 2-4 plants per square foot has _______ the amount of seed on later branches than a stand of 10 plants per square foot.
51. If seed has not started to turn colour, it must have this characteristic if it has any chance of maturing and contributing positively to yield and quality.
52. When using a drop pan to check for losses out the back of a combine, this is an important step in the procedure:
53. With post harvest weed control, growers are encouraged to wait a few weeks for regrowth. Even when growers wait 4 to 6 weeks for regrowth, leaf surface area is still only a fraction of what it was prior to harvest. Therefore glyphosate rates may need to increase _______ to get the same concentration of glyphosate in the plant.

Part TWO


Every week during the growing season (May-September) in 2014, Canola Watch featured a quiz. The following 17 questions are taken from those quizzes. To find the answers, click “submit” at the bottom of each weekly quiz and see the answer key.
Say canola seeded on May 1 has 100% of its yield potential. After what seeding date does canola yield potential drop below 80% of its May 1 level?
55. What is this weed?

Kochia seedling Brenzil small copy
56. Why is this insect special?

Diadegma insulare small
57. Here are two cotyledons. The one on the right is healthy. The one on the left probably won’t live much longer. Why not?

Wirestem long small
58. The best spraying conditions to reduce the drift risk are…?
59. What is this weed?

Green foxtail seedling
60. What is this weed?

cleavers seedlings Brenzil small
61. This canola plant has a nutrient deficiency. What nutrient does it lack?

Sulphur deficiency stem leaf cupping
62. What is the flowering stage of this plant and crop?

Canola at 20% flower. Source: NDSU
63. What has damaged this bud cluster?

Damage to florets as a result of swede midge feeding. Source: Julie Soroka
64. What caused the damage to this root?

foot rot 3 Jurke small
65. Diamondback moth larvae at threshold levels are really only a threat if they’re eating _______.
66. What is this worm?

67. What is the key reason for pre-harvest intervals?
68. A harvest sample shows fairly high green seed counts. The grower wants to stop combining and leave the crop to see if the green clears enough to bring the crop up to a No.2 grade. What is required to restart the enzyme process that will reduce chlorophyll levels in the seed?
69. Why is it more challenging to diagnose crop diseases after swathing?
70. Based on the data presented in this table, which one of the following statements is true, statistically speaking?

September 17 quiz table


71. Your name (first and last)

72. If you are a CCC, what is your CCA number?

73. If you are a CCSC, what is your CCSC number?

74. Your email address

75. Your phone number